The main principles of health and safety legistion and guidelines for health and safety environment?
i have a case study to do, really struggling! big time. im hoping someone would be able to explain and help me with this!... iv been told to describe the main principles of health and safety legislation and guidelines for health and safety environment? food safety, manual handling etc.. then to explain the main principles of health and safety legislation and guidelines for health and safety environments!!!! im lost please help!!!! many thanks!
Question answered by Ecko
Well I guess you have to look up Health and safety legislation in your country - there is no alternative. It is mostly about the workplace. Usually the "punch line" is a few key words. I think a basic idea is the golden rule, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you". The legislation normally applies to the workplace. Earlier legislation often existed, such as various forms of energy control. The environment comes into safety legislation, via toxic hazards.
In Australia legislation is based on "duty of care". In the US I am not sure, but one of the catch phrases was "the right to know". The rest of the legislation is about who has the power to create regulations, enforce them and so on. Then there are the regulations themselves. In Australia a lot is embodied in the "Plant Regulations", as this applies to machines in factories. The regulations are often adapted from previous ones. Think of boilers. After the first few exploded long ago regulations appeared. These have been adapted and taken on by current OHS regulations. Unfortunately the issue is complex because of the wide ranging implications, and the large number of regulators, both vertically in different tiers of government, and laterally in the various departments and interests involved. There are a lot of what I would call "anomalies caused by vested interests". These include multiple bodies trying to regulate the same thing (even in the same government), state versus federal rights, and of course industry in avoidance technology mode. All of this is rich picking for the legal profession.
We have primary legislation, the big picture, then regulations. These in turn may formalise national or state standards (such as electrical regulations) or best practice documents.
On the legal side it takes a lot of training to become expert.
On the workplace side it takes a lot of training to become expert, particularly as one needs Technical/Engineering know how to understand or analyse a lot of the issues. I have seen OHS officers struggling with this often. The budget needs to allow for consultants in some cases, hired equipment in other cases.
At first it can seem overwhelming. In my state companies with more than 150 employees need to have a full time OHS person.
It is necessary to have specific management procedures in place to detect and nullify hazards. Usually a continuous improvement management method is used. This is like a closed loop control system. Measure the outcome and determine the error, go back and correct it. The approach at corporate levels is to protect against litigation. "Show that all reasonable care has been taken." Hopefully this also protects workers and the public. The legislation is to help enforce this corporate responsibility.
I think it is best to review the legislation first to determine the scope, what needs to be addressed. A few seminars at the various levels of management helps. Make a list of all the issues in a workplace, brainstorm if necessary. Then adress them one by one. It helps to have a list of the categories, perhaps according to regulations. Thus (by no means exhaustive):
Food processing, manufacture, preparation and handling.
Radiation, full cycle
Materials, full cycle, toxic hazards, waste.
Plant, full cycle
Contracts, visitors, public
Buildings, offices, accomodation, storage, lighting, sewerage. air quality, vermin etc.
Fuel, Power, Energy
Some basic controls are to implement a system to ensure all hazards are detected and addressed. This involves detection, risk assessment, risk management and hazard elimination. Have a records system showing how this has been addressed. Some examples:
Review MSDS for all purchased materials to determine what hazards exist. With plant all applications of energy need to be analysed. Each field has its own specialisations, and I think it is experience and training over time that can make a system work effectively. The usual outcome for annual reports etc. is statistics on accidents and near misses.
I want to go for Umrah and to Dubai in the same trip with my family in April 09. Can i do this?
Should I contact the individual embassies or just the travel agent??
Question answered by jenxjen46
Go to a good travel consultants place, they will be able to book you in for a specialist trip for the Umrah, I would advise that you travel with at least another person for this anyway. The travel consultants can then organise you transport to the airport where you will catch a flight to Dubai and then obviously your accommodation and flights home. They will inform you of all the Visa requirements etc that you may come up against too, costs and how to go around obtaining them. Also, knowing that you are going with a certified consultancy and have all the relevant ABTA and ATOL protection will give you a better peace of mind. Hope you have a great experience. So jealous, wish I was off to Dubai... :) Sigh.
Why is the HSE's cancer care system with its "centres of excellence" such a joke?
Last time I had cancer, the local "cancer centre" was Letterkenny, 62km away.
I've relapsed. Letterkenny is now a "satellite" that does some things under supervision from its "parent centre", but I had to go to GALWAY which is 306km away for surgery, and rely on a volunteer from a local charity to make the 10 hour round trip to pick me up and take me home when I was released.
R - G
Question answered by Trust me I'm a Doctor ♥
It is terrible isn't it. Sorry to hear about your relapse and fingers crossed all goes well. I used to work in the NHS in England for almost 17 years in GP surgery and hospital and people used to moan about the NHS but it was 20x better than the cancer care here in Ireland. Patients saw a consultant within 10 days of being referred by their GP and free ambulance transport was provided to and from hospital appointments if you had no-one to take you.
I can understand the need to have "centres of excellence" with the best consultants in them and that patients will have to travel to be seen but over 300km is ridiculous. There should be more of these "centres of excellence" so that each patient doesn't have more than 100km journey. That be the most sensible thing but obviously the HSE cannot afford to pay the staff they have let alone employ more doctors.
I hope I am never seriously ill but I would contemplate going to live with relatives in the UK if I was to avail of the NHS rather than be treated here. I have had to have outpatient appointments here and that is bad enough, rude staff, waits of up to 5 hours when I had an actual appointment time to see the surgeon etc
"Oh . . . . (groans) he's breastfed" ?
Can you believe this was said to me by a consultant cardiologist today?
I took my son for an appointment and during his heart scan he started to get a bit wriggly - not fretful - quite the opposite, he was vert good, but he was making the Dr's job harder.
Bearing in mind this guy is a pediatric cardiologist I was quite surprised when he tutted & said, "look just give him a bottle" I said "I'm sorry?" he said "you know, a bottle? A dummy? I can't do the scan if he's doing this."
I told him we had neither and he groaned "oh, he's breastfed, well a toy? some food? just distract him will you?" He said all of this very impatiently.
I thought to myself - hey - you know what - he's 7mos old, you have 3 probes with wires on and a scanning probe in his reach - what you think he's gonna do? FFS
Like a bottle or a dummy would have helped anyway - bloody moron.
duh, like I left my son just laying there, I was holding his arms and playing with him FFS, I'm not stupid.
Oh & in the UK we don't choose our healthcare we get what we are given.
Baby Berry mad for mummy juice
Question answered by I'm No Supermum!
Wow, what a berk!
You'd think he would know better, working specifically with babies!
I would complain, he ought to know better.
ETA - lol, anyone else think that the 'let it go' answerers are not parents??
ETA again - To the answerers who seem to sympathise with the doctor - instead of 'think about it this way - he has to deal with squirmy babies all day...' How about, think about it this way - they had to tackle London public transport (a mission in itself), navigate through a large hospital to find the right department, probably had to wait in a crowded waiting room, all with a squirmy baby, he was then proded and poked, then they got patronised and scolded by the man that we TAXPAYERS pay to deal with it in a professional and polite manner.
I think I sympathise with the baby more.
what kind of geography related jobs are there?
Question answered by Nithya D
Oh wow, so many choices. It's such a flexible field:
-Meteorologist, weather predicting etc
-environmental consultant: keeping tabs on or enforcing waste management, conservation or renewing sustainable resources.
-researcher: field work to study ANY subject that takes your fancy :)
-Geography information systems manager: handling a variety of geog. data and doing something useful with it. Examples are those who plan flood defences, predict earthquakes, stuff like that.
-anything to do with planning and buidling. Looking at traffic data and planning new transport systems. Planning town growth. Anything really.
-anything to do with tourism: from starting your own company, working as an advisor, pioneering for a company to find new locations that coul be popular to enforcing tourism restrictions! fun sector.
-charitable work: planning sustainable ways to improve life in eprived areas. From improving inner city areas to designing fresh water supplies in Africa.
General skill use:
-cartographers (map making: cool stuff, working with digital images and the like)
-any job that doesn't need a specialist degree. Most employers are just looking to see that you're bright so a geography degree will still be a boost if you decide you want an unrelated job in an entirely different field.
Basically there's tons of stuff you can do. To choose, think about which subjects interest you the most. Rivers? Polpulations? Then filter things down from there. All the sectors need people, in the most basic breakdown, to collect the data, analyse and present the data, use the data well and maybe teach it on elsewhere. Whatever floats your boat.
Talking to a careers advisor will help, as will looking at the geography page on university websites. Talk to your geography teacher too, they must have looked into it at some point in their lives.
A.Income 1200000, what would be the Income tax and please suggest how much the person can save @ max.?
Components of salary Eligibility Declaration
(Declarations should be made for the entire year) Rs. Rs.
Basic 480,000 480,000
House Rent Allowance 192,000 192,000
Employer Contribution to Provident Fund 57,600 57,600
Medical Allowance 15,000 15,000
Leave Travel Allowance 40,000 40,000
Food coupons 13,200 13,200
Personal pay (residual) 402,200 402,200
Gross Salary 1,200,000 1,200,000
My Bad i forgot to add these information. I am salaried, male, Indian Rupees, not a senior citizen, citi is delhi, for financial year 2008-2009...please let me know if anything is missing
Question answered by Prasanth
With details provided and with "0" investments, your tax for this FY - considering that the whole of 12,00,000 is given in this FY will be 2,56,602.
I suggest that you use a tax calculator for this - one is available for download at http://www.freewebs.com/rajanpras/itcalcfy2009.htm
There are lots of saving instruments - check the "Investments" section for details and the "Charts" section for the limit of tax benefits - you should consult a financial consultant for the correct investment; i.e. if ypu decide on life insurance, there are not less than 15 to 20 firms offering various flavours of this, for which you need a one-to-one discussion with an investment advisor.
I have a few questions about breastmilk/pumping help...?
I want to increase my milk supply...I'm a mum of a 7 week old, my baba will latch on once in a while but not very often so I combine feed him with expressed milk and formula feeding. I'm unable to produce much with expressing, while I'm using a medela swing pump...one breast, which is smaller, produces mere drops while the other produces an average of 1 to 2 oz. per pumping session. I usually express my milk 6 times a day. I'm miserable that I can't give my baby more breastmilk! OK, PLEASE don't just fob me off to "go visit a lactation consultant" because I have already discussed this with my health visitor and talked to a lactation consultant on the phone. I live in a very rural area in Cornwall and don't have a car or access to public transport, and according to my health visitor there isn't a lactation consultant where we live. Now that that's out of the way. I was already shown how to center my nipple, and to massage the breast, and my nipple fits fine in the shield ect. Nothings' wrong there. Sooo...
-I've read that pumping both breasts at the same time increases production-due to some change in hormones-is this true?
-What galactagogues are safe to take? I have read about fenugreek blessed thistle ect. but then some medical sites also say that they are unsafe to take during pregnancy/breastfeeding so I'm really confused, is there any safe herbal type thing/anything you can eat/ect that will help increase supply?
-Will increasing the suction on a breastpump (to a degree that it's still 'comfortable' of course) make the milk come out faster/increase supply? I've read that it won't but I kind of find that hard to believe so I thought I'd ask and see if anyone had any thoughts on this.
...and any other tips would be great. Thanks!
Question answered by Ellen
First, pump more frequently. The bare minimum number of times in a 24 hour period is 8. More frequent stimulation means more milk. Try pumping for 10-15 minutes about every 2 hours during the day, and every 3-4 at night.
Double pumping has been shown to increase milk yields (kind of like nursing twins). The suction should not be so strong that it is painful. If the suction is painful, dial it down. High suction for too long can cause breast pain and problems (although they are temporary).
Oatmeal, fenugreek capsules (2-3 capsules 2-3 times a day), blessed thistle and goat's rue are all galactagogues. It helps to get sufficient protein and water, too. These are things we suggest all the time in our hospital LC practice.
Have you considered a "babymoon"? Cuddle your baby skin to skin for the better part of a day or two, allowing him to latch on at will. Try to avoid bottles. I do agree that if a baby can latch, a baby can breastfeed all the time. Try bathing with the baby, and he may latch while in a relaxed state in the water. The baby at the breast frequently works even better than more frequent pumping.
trying to breastfeed my 5 days old, i dont want to give up..?
I had a csection due to few complication and after i kept my fever of 102 for about 37 hours in the hospital. my body was too hot and the baby was getting too toasty next to my skin so lactation nurse and I didnt have all the time to fiddle with breastfeeding. Day 2 my baby girl lost 5 percent of her body weight and i was asked to supplement her w/ formula milk. I used my finger and medical dropper to feed her ( didnt want bottle nipple to become her feeding method) Since i came home i ve been constantly trying to breastfeed but she gets real fussy when i get her into "football" position to latch on to my breast. Ive been using electric breast pump to stimulate my nipples and noticed i havnt made much progress on making more breast milk.. my breast got hard and heavy but i only produce about 1.2 fl oz from both breast combined.. i REALLLLLY dont want to give up now.. i get teary just sitting here stressing about this.. why is it soo hard... what can i do to help my baby to latch on??? and am i producing enough? will i start getting more??
Question answered by KyLuMum
Don't worry! It will get better, you just need to relax and get some good advice. You may want to have a lactation consultant come to your home (it is really worth it). In the meantime:
You say your breasts are hard - which means you are engorged and should be able to pump more milk, so a couple things to help. First take a warm bath, soaking your breasts in warm water or with a heating pad. Massage your breasts gently to loosen up your milk ducts and prepare for pumping. You don't have to do it very hard, just do in little circles to stimulate let-down. You may consider doing this as you pump as well. As you pump take deep breaths and try your best to relax. You need to make sure that the breast shield on your pump fits your nipple correctly - this cuold be why you are not getting much when you pump. I had a problem with this and bought a smaller shield and now get tons of milk when I pump. Follow this link to determine the correct fit:
As to actual breastfeeding - you may want to try laying down or try another nursing position. Some babies hate the football hold - probably because if you are on a couch or something their little legs and feet get all squished up. I would try laying down in bed - my baby loves this position!
If your breasts are engorged, your baby might be having a hard time getting properly latched on because of this. Try expressing a little bit of milk by hand before trying to latch baby - anything - even just massage to soften the breast first is a good idea.
Most of all - don't give up! Breastfeeding is totally natural, that doesn't mean it always comes easily every time though. I breastfed my daughter 10 years ago with no problems whatsoever, and now I have a 3 month old son and had many problems when first BF'ing him after we got home from the hospital. Just try to relax, I know it is stressful - I have been there, but just don't be so hard on yourself. You can do it!
Where can I get the List of Infrastructure,Power & Construction Companies in India?
Question answered by learner of knowledge
IPPs, Developers, Generating Companies
- Power Utilities
- Infrastructure Providers
- Transmission Companies
- Distribution Companies
- Oil & Gas Companies
- Renewable Energy Companies
- Pipeline Companies
- Transport Providers
- Transformer Manufacturers
- EPC Contractors
- Equipment & Machinery Suppliers
- Construction Companies
- Telecom Companies
- Water Companies
- IT companies
- Shipping Companies
- Urban Infrastructure Development Bodies
- members of various Trade Associations like CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM, PHDCCI, IEEMA, CEAI, TEMA, NASSCOM, FIDIC etc
- Consultants- Technical, Management, Finance, Consulting Engineers etc
- Financial Institutions- NBFCs, DFIs, Indian Banks, Foreign Banks
- Multilateral Funding Agencies
- Housing Finance Companies
- Insurance Companies
- Law Firms
- Service Providers
- Associations/ Trade bodies/ EPCs
- Government of India- Ministries/ Departments
- Diplomatic Corps
- International Development Agencies
- Press & Electronic Media
- Advertising Agencies
- PR Agencies
Ireland health care system questions.?
Can anyone tell me if you move back to Ireland after 22 years how long you would wait to get surgery for obgyn issues.
Also for annual exams like colonoscopy for reacurring polys.
How do you get set up for the health care system if you want to go home to your home country and what do you need to do so you can get seen to as soon as possilbe. Do you have to be in the country for a period of time before you can do this or what does one do. Any information would be helpful. -this is a big concern before making this decision as far as health concerns that need to be addressed immediately. For personal reasons going home may need to be someting of an immediate nature at this time.---thankyou
Orla what is VHI ? and if semi private would that cost me thousands of euros for surgery , room, pahtology, anesthetia etc etc plus surgeons fees.
I do not have this kind of money at all.
Question answered by Priscilla Duck
Hi Lexie, I lived away for a number of years and when I came back I simply registered with a General Practitioner (it costs about 50Eur every visit). You need an address and a PPS number (Social Security number - you may still have one of these from when you lived here before).
If you need a specialist, they will then refer you on within the public health services. The wait time varies depending on the nature of your illness and on where you live. Wait times can be slower for public patients than for private patients, but again it depends on the nature and severity of your illness. The one time I had a serious illness I had to wait 6 weeks for my results to come back, but once they did, I was admitted to hospital the following day and had the procedure carried out within 3 days (as a public patient).
And, of course, using the public system is free. If you do not have a medical card, you are entitled to free public hospital services (including all the ones you listed above) but will have to pay for GP visits (EUR 50-ish) and emergency hospital admissions (EUR 60). You are also entitled to subsidised prescribed drugs and you may be entitled to free or subsidised community care. If you return here long term and are in tight financial circumstances, you may be eligible for a medical card, in which case doctor visits are also free.
The citizens information website says the following in relation to entitlement to health care services:
"If you are living in Ireland - the legal term is ordinarily resident, you are entitled to a range of health services that are free of charge or subsidised by the Irish Government.
Entitlement to health services in Ireland is mainly based on residency and means, rather than on your payment of tax or pay-related social insurance (PRSI). Broadly speaking, if you are living here and intend to continue to live here for at least a year, you will be considered to be ordinarily resident.
If you are taking up residence in Ireland or returning here to live, you would be regarded as ordinarily resident in Ireland if you satisfy your Health Service Executive (HSE) that it is your intention to remain in Ireland for "a minimum of one year".
To establish that a person is ordinarily resident the HSE may require:
* Proof of property purchase or rental, including evidence that the property in question is the person's principal residence.
* Evidence of transfer of funds, bank accounts, pensions etc.
* A residence permit or visa.
* A work permit or visa, statements from employers etc.
* In some instances, the signing of an affidavit (a sworn written statement) by the applicant"
No problems there for you.
People living in cities generally have better access to services than those of us down the country, as there are higher concentrations of services and consultants in the city areas. If you're returning to Ireland solely to access the healthcare services, I highly recommend you move close to the hospital you wish to attend, as this will save on transport costs and needing to travel when you feel like crap.
I know I continually slag off the health services here, but the system is certainly better than in the US.
PS - I hope you make a full recovery!