How to calculate volcano growth rate?
Hey party people! I require some expert to help me answer this question. How can you calculate the growth rate and age of a volcano when given the volume of lava exerted of a 6 year period?
Question answered by Tashkent T
It's all down to surveying.
The volcano was surveyed on a particular date and it was also surveyed 6 years prior to that particular date. The surveyors doing this work determine the height of the mountain & each aspect of its shape on both occasions.
From their measurements, they then calculate that volume of increase (volume of lava) produced by the volcano over the 6 year period. Because they also know the volume of the volcano at the time of the original survey 6 years ago, they can determine the RATE OF INCREASE in volume &, extrapolating backwards, how long ago it was that the volcano was born.
Similarly, on the basis of surveyors' measurements, the rate of increase in the height of the volcano can be determined by considering the height now, the height 6 years ago then recording the difference. The average annual rate of increase can then be calculated.
If the volcano is particularly big compared with the surrounding country rocks, there may be the need to consider isostatic adjustment as a considerable amount of the accumulated lava would have sunk deep into the crust. Here it is necessary to compare the specific gravity of the volcano's lava compared with the specific gravity of the mantle (the specific gravity of undifferentiated peridotite is about 3.3) while rhyolite has an SG of 2.65 & andesite has an SG of 2.85. In regard to this factor, the 'root' of the volcano will be approximately 5 times larger than what appears on surface. Therefore, for an isolated volcano composed of rhyolite, the total volume may need to be multiplied by 6 (that is the volume above surface plus 5 times the volume underneath the land surface).
It should be stated that volcano eruption rates are highly variable in that one eruption may produce more lava than the previous ten eruptions combined. Determining any meaningful extrapolated information with regard to the age of the volcano or its increase in height PRESUPPOSES that the production of lava by the volcano is constant. This is very rarely the case.
Where i can find complete rate analysis for civil works?
i am looking for a complete rate analysis in civil works. where can i find it. am working in India. CPWD is a standard rate analysis in India. but its too big in reality. so kindly suggest me to get a resonable rate analysis for civil works.
Question answered by anurag
There is two way of rate analysis either using ones own analysis of practical deployment of man, material, machinery, money. Second method is to use empirical values generated by others like CPWD, book of B.N. Datta, Practical Information for Quantity Surveyors| P T Joglekar.
I find CPWD rate analysis very useful for material & labour coefficient as when I have to generate rate for quotation, I use material rates & labour wages from magazine of builder's friend.When I have to do analysis for govt. related work I use minimum wages book of the state publication.Other thing like workman compensation ,group insurance premium,P.F. other local taxes as applicable vary place to place & are added when client want breakup of quoted rates.
How can I get an honest estimate for a roof repair job?
I have had several roofers inspect and offer prices to do a few repairs to a flat roof on a small 2 storey terraced house in Kilburn.I now have several wildy different estimates, and would like to know how to go about getting a real estimate.One suggestion I had was to get a surveyor to look at the job, but dont they cost a fortune?
Question answered by Aloha Guy
I would recommend joining ANGIE's LIST <= membership is pricey but supposely can join for just one month and then just getting quotes from like 3 or more highest rated local roofing firms. The nice thing about ANGIE's LIST is consumer/resident members do decent job subjectively rating firms for their quality of work and sometimes price on different/various repair services and most give honest opinions so please beware not to select bad apples or ones with lowest grades bec they are crooked and you don't want to do business with them or get quotes from bec in the end.
BTW please keep in mind to get estimate in writing (Oh! very important for you to ask upfront if they charge a price for estimate) but please keep in mind that quality and experience in doing the job right is not always the lowest price...
Hope the Above Info Helps!
Is it possible to split one property deed into 2?
I am buying a property that is 2.1 acres. It has two 4 apartment complexes, but because they are on one big deed I have to get a single commercial loan instead of an FHA. The commercial lender suggested seeing if it was possible to split the deed into 2 so I could save on my interest rate (7% vs 10.625). Does anyone have experience with this? How would I go about splitting the one deed into two, with one for each of the buildings?
Question answered by TarDane
You probably won't be splitting the deed, you will probably need to subdivide the property.
If the property is currently held as one legal parcel (which it sounds like it is), then you must go through the subdivision process with your local government. This is typically a time consuming process, and will require you to hire a surveyor and/or an engineer or attorney.
On the other hand, if the property has already been subdivided, but was simply conveyed in one deed, then there is no issue; you can simply have the property conveyed through multiple deeds.
What is the going rate for Surveyors in Ga?
Looking for Price per foot. Assume land is mixed cleared pasture and woods.
Question answered by meandher47229
Can someone explain to me what salary is and how many hours i have to do?
I am house surveyor but carry out surveys throughtout the UK, my salary is 15k, and i usually work 40 hour weeks, but i have to travel alot and this bulks my hours to sometimes fifty hours, however i dont get paid for these travelling hours outside the 40 hour week, is this right or is this part of being on a salary compared to hourly pay.
Question answered by OneStepTango
Salary is where you get paid a flat rate for work you do within a certain time period, instead of being paid a wage for hourly work. Usually you are paid per month or twice monthly. If you are paid a salary then you get that flat rate of pay for however many hours you end up working during that time period, so what you are being asked to do is part of being on salary. However, there is usually extra pay given for expenses incurred to do the job, such as those had for travel. Those expenses might be for gas, car rentals, hotel rooms, meals, etc.
Can anyone recommend a good Buy to Let Mortgage bank?
I am looking to buy a flat to let out - can anyone recommend a bank or lender who will do this for a reasonable rate at 90% loan to value.
Any other bits of info on investments or good investment companies would go amiss either. Thanks
Question answered by Adam B
My Buy to let Interest Only mortgage is with Platform Homeloans... Searched high and low 3 years ago and got a 0.2% above base rate tracker for the life of the mortgage, with the option to add to my protfolio on the same mortgage deal upto the value of £1 million total investments, at the same rate.
Cant recall the exact deal, but with specialist interest only buy to let mortgages, companies will only lend the amount based on the potential rental income of the property. We had to get a surveyor to agree that we would likely rent it for £450, and it needs to be 125% of the cost of the actual monthly repayments. That was 3 years ago, and things may have changed, so shop around.
Regarding Platform, I am really happy with this company.
What are the roles of Estimator and Qauntity Surveyor in the construction industry?
And what is the average pay of each thanks.
Question answered by Zed
Estimators, also known as cost engineers, work out how much it costs to supply products or services to a client.
A quantity surveyor manages all costs relating to building projects. From the initial calculations to the final figures
The average pay would depend on where in the country you were working. London paying the best rates. About £40k for both.
Is there a Government Agency that Annually Evaluates Doctors and Hospitals?
And if so, is there a Website where I can see how they are Rated?
Question answered by eye.surg
JCAHO. They monitor hospitals. State Medical Boards monitor physicians. Most state medical boards have websites you can search.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
The predominant standards-setting and accrediting body in health care
Founded in 1951
Independent, not-for-profit organization
JCAHO evaluates and accredits more than 16,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States.
JCAHO develops professionally based standards and evaluates the compliance of health care organizations against these benchmarks.
JCAHO accreditation is recognized nationwide.
Accreditation is a symbol of quality that reflects an organization's commitment to meeting certain performance standards.
To earn and maintain accreditation, an organization must undergo an on-site survey by a JCAHO survey team at least every three years.
Laboratories must be surveyed every two years.
JCAHO is governed by a 29-member Board of Commissioners that includes nurses, physicians, consumers, medical directors, administrators, providers, employers, a labor representative, health plan leaders, quality experts, ethicists, a health insurance administrator and educators.
JCAHO employs more than 1,000 people in its surveyor force, at its central office in Oakbrook Terrace, IL, and at a satellite office in Washington, DC.
Mission: To continuously improve the safety and quality of care provided to the public through the provision of health care accreditation and related services that support performance improvement in health care organizations.
What is the advantage of using a rating scale in a questionnaire?
this is on an A level Psychology paper (3 marks)
Question answered by EMW
It gives the surveyor a more accurate picture. When given only the choices of "yes" or "no," there is no way to know whether the answer actually implies, "yes, a little bit" or "yes, it's possible," or whether it might mean, "yes, all the time!"